Real Assets, Real Freedom:

Building Your Empire Through Real Estate

Unleash the power of real estate to build your financial empire. This guide offers essential insights into turning property investments into a robust source of passive income and long-term wealth. Learn strategies to smartly diversify your portfolio and mitigate market risks, all while paving your path to financial independence. It’s more than just buying property; it’s about making informed, strategic decisions to secure your future. Ready to transform your financial landscape?


In the sprawling landscape of financial opportunities, the journey toward financial independence is much like navigating a meticulously designed golf course, where each stroke counts towards the ultimate goal. Within this vast arena, real estate stands out as a particularly promising path, offering not just returns but the foundation for a lasting legacy, akin to the enduring satisfaction of a skillfully played game. This introductory chapter sets the stage for a strategic exploration of the real estate investment terrain, drawing parallels between the nuanced mastery of wealth principles and the art of refining one’s golf swing.

At the core of this expedition lies the ambitious pursuit of financial freedom, a prize as coveted as a hole-in-one, yet fraught with challenges as daunting as the most deceptive sand traps. For business owners, entrepreneurs, and real estate professionals, real estate investment, particularly in the multifamily domain, represents a reliable tool in their arsenal, promising stability, scalability, and the allure of passive income.

This journey through real estate is not merely a transactional endeavor; it’s a transformative process. Each property, each deal, represents a deliberate stride towards achieving personal and financial aspirations, much like the careful progression from tee to green. The market, with its intricate dynamics and unforeseen obstacles, commands a strategic approach, rewarding those who diligently study its nuances.

Fairway Equities steps in as your seasoned guide, offering expert navigation and strategic insights tailored to align with your unique goals and risk preferences. Our comprehensive approach treats real estate investment as a collaborative venture, addressing the distinct challenges and goals of business owners, entrepreneurs, and busy professionals. We understand the critical importance of leveraging real estate to not only build wealth but also to harness tax advantages, effectively offsetting profits in any passive business ventures.

As we delve deeper into this guide, we will unravel the essentials of successful real estate investment, from in-depth market analysis to the intricacies of syndication and the art of portfolio diversification. This guide transcends a mere introduction; it is a strategic playbook designed to empower you towards financial autonomy, utilizing the transformative potential of real estate.

With Fairway Equities by your side, you embark on this journey not as a solitary player but with a dedicated partner, a mentor, and an ally. We are committed to navigating you through the complexities of the real estate market, steering you towards tangible assets and genuine freedom. We aim to build not just a portfolio but a lasting legacy of prosperity. Welcome to the strategic realm of real estate investment, where achieving your financial freedom goals becomes as attainable as the gratification of a well-executed round of golf.

The Foundations of Real Estate Investment

Stepping into the world of real estate investment is akin to positioning yourself on the first tee of a prestigious golf course. With the fairway stretching out before you, there’s a palpable sense of potential and opportunity. This chapter is your guide to understanding the basic principles that form the backbone of real estate investment.

The Essence of Real Estate Investment

At its core, investing in real estate involves the purchase, ownership, management, rental, and/or sale of real estate for profit. It’s a play that requires foresight, strategy, and patience, much like planning your approach to each hole on a golf course, considering the best angle of approach, club selection, and swing to reach the green successfully.

Advantages of Real Estate Investment

Real estate investment offers a unique blend of benefits not found in other asset classes:

  • Tangible Asset: Real estate is a physical asset that provides utility and value through its use and occupancy.
  • Income Generation: Rental properties can provide a steady stream of passive income.
  • Natural and Forced Appreciation: Over time, market forces such as inflation and economic growth will naturally provide the potential for capital gains.  

Forced appreciation amplifies the potential for appreciation by increasing the amount of income a property generates through rent increases, pet fees, and administrative fees, in addition to reducing expenses through operational efficiencies.  By forcing both higher income and lower expenses a property’s net operating income can be vastly increased adding significant value and garnering lucrative returns to investors. 

  • Leverage: Real estate allows for the use of leverage, using various financing methods to increase potential return on investment, much like using a driver to maximize distance on a long par 5.

Historical Performance and Stability

Real estate has historically been a stable investment, showing less volatility compared to stocks and bonds, and often acting as a hedge against inflation.  The historical resilience of real estate, even during economic downturns, underscores its value as a foundational element of a diversified investment portfolio.  “Ninety percent of all millionaires become so through owning real estate. More money has been made in real estate than in all industrial investments combined. The wise young man or wage earner of today invests his money in real estate.” – Andrew Carnegie, billionaire industrialist.

Navigating the Course

Understanding the foundations of real estate investment is crucial for navigating the complexities of the market. Each investment decision should be made with the same care and strategic thinking as selecting the right club for a particular shot. It involves assessing the terrain (market conditions), weather (economic climate), and distance to the hole (investment goals), to make informed choices that align with your overall game plan.

In conclusion, the foundations of real estate investment are rooted in understanding the basic principles, appreciating the unique advantages, and recognizing the historical performance and stability of real estate as an asset class. As we delve deeper into the subsequent chapters, we will build upon these foundations, exploring more advanced strategies and insights to help you navigate the real estate market with skill and confidence.

Setting Your Investment Goals

Like a golfer with eyes fixed on the championship trophy, the essence of achieving mastery in the realm of real estate investment lies in setting clear and definitive investment goals. This chapter is crafted to guide you through the process of defining your financial aspirations, thereby positioning real estate as the pivotal element in realizing those ambitions. A well-defined investment strategy forms the bedrock of triumphant endeavors in real estate.

The initial step in this journey beckons you to introspect: What are your financial aspirations? Is it achieving a comfortable retirement at a certain age, generating a consistent stream of passive income, or securing funds for your children’s future education? The multifaceted nature of real estate investment allows for a tailored approach to meet these varied objectives, reminiscent of selecting the most suitable club for the shot at hand.

Real estate investment is far from a one-size-fits-all affair. It demands a meticulous match between the chosen property and your distinct financial goals, whether the aim is to capitalize on rental income, appreciate property value, or harness tax benefits. This selection process is akin to a golfer deciding between a driver to cover greater distances or a putter for precision shots, with each tool playing a specific role in the journey towards the ultimate goal.

With your goals clearly outlined, the subsequent phase involves devising a comprehensive investment strategy. This step encompasses thorough market research, in-depth financial analysis, and a keen assessment of potential risks, ensuring that every investment decision is made with deliberation and precision. Whether the plan involves diversifying across different types of properties or concentrating efforts in a particular market segment, your strategy ought to mirror your individual goals, risk appetite, and investment horizon.

Moreover, the unpredictable nature of economic conditions can significantly impact the real estate market. It underscores the necessity for your investment strategy to possess the inherent flexibility to adapt to these changing market dynamics while maintaining a focus on your overarching long-term objectives.

In sum, setting attainable investment goals and sculpting a strategic roadmap to achieve them is comparable to plotting a course map for a victorious round of golf. The real estate domain offers an expansive and varied playing field, replete with a plethora of strategies and property types to navigate and explore. By the culmination of this book, you’ll be endowed with a profound understanding of aligning your real estate investments with your financial dreams, thereby laying the groundwork for a fruitful and fulfilling investment journey.

Understanding Multifamily Real Estate

Multifamily real estate stands out as a beacon for investors seeking to expand their horizons beyond the conventional bounds of single-family properties. This chapter unveils the multifaceted nature of multifamily properties, illustrating how they can serve as a linchpin in a well-rounded investment portfolio.

This segment of the real estate market, with its array of options from duplexes to sprawling apartment complexes, stands as a testament to the scalability and operational efficiency it offers to investors. The allure of multifamily investments primarily lies in their formidable capacity for generating robust cash flow. Unlike their single-family counterparts, where financial returns hinge on the occupancy of a single unit, multifamily properties diversify income streams across several units. This diversity in income sources ensures a more stable financial footing.

A critical aspect of multifamily investments is their inherent ability to mitigate risk. The distribution of tenants across multiple units in a single investment property naturally disperses the financial impact of vacancies, ensuring that the investment remains lucrative even when individual units are unoccupied. This risk diversification is comparable to a golfer’s game strategy, where a subpar performance on one hole can be compensated by excellence in others, maintaining a competitive overall score.

Economies of scale play a pivotal role in the appeal of investing in multifamily properties. The management and maintenance of a property with numerous units are not significantly more challenging than overseeing a single unit, yet the income potential is exponentially higher. This principle is akin to the concept of bulk buying, where the cost per unit decreases as the quantity increases, resulting in more efficient resource allocation and enhanced profitability.

Furthermore, securing financing for multifamily properties is often more straightforward and favorable than for single-family homes, attributed to the income-generating potential these properties hold. Lenders tend to perceive multifamily investments as lower-risk ventures.

Beyond the financial benefits, multifamily real estate investment carries the potential for community building and positive social impact. Quality housing, communal spaces, and neighborhood enhancements not only contribute to the financial success of the investment but also enrich the lives of residents and the broader community.

In summarizing this chapter, the multifaceted advantages of multifamily real estate investment come into clear focus. The progression from single-family to multifamily properties represents not just an escalation in investment complexity but a strategic move towards enhanced financial stability, diversified income sources, and meaningful community impact. Investors venturing into the multifamily real estate arena are akin to golfers refining their skills to conquer more demanding courses, poised to elevate their investment portfolio towards the pinnacle of financial independence and legacy creation.

The Power of Syndication

This chapter delves into the intricate world of apartment/multifamily syndication, a nuanced strategy within the real estate investment sphere that amalgamates the resources and expertise of multiple investors to undertake and manage property ventures that might be unattainable on an individual scale. Syndication stands as a beacon for collaborative investment, offering a conduit to substantial real estate opportunities, characterized by a shared spectrum of risks and rewards, much like a symphony where each musician’s contribution is vital to the harmony.

At the core of syndication lies the dual principles of leverage and collaboration. This model enables investors to band together, pooling their financial resources and collective knowledge to access and capitalize on real estate ventures of a larger scale and higher potential yield. Such collaborative efforts not only extend the investment reach of each participant but also dilute the individual financial burden, rendering ambitious projects more feasible and within reach.

For instance, consider a syndication deal targeting the acquisition of an upscale $10 million apartment complex. In this scenario, a lead investor or sponsor, akin to the team captain, takes the helm to scout, vet, and secure the property, orchestrating the due diligence and management processes. Passive investors, in turn, contribute their capital to the collective pool, with the understanding that their returns will be directly proportional to their investment stakes. This arrangement not only democratizes access to lucrative real estate deals but also mitigates the managerial burden for individual investors, offering a pathway to passive income generation.

One of the most compelling draws of syndication is the allure of passive income, a prospect especially appealing for those who seek to invest in real estate without the bandwidth or inclination to manage properties directly. This arrangement offers investors the luxury to engage in the real estate market with the same ease as a golfer relies on their caddy, not just to carry the clubs but to provide strategic insights on the game, allowing the golfer to focus on the play with minimal distractions.

Moreover, syndication inherently fortifies risk management by dispersing investment exposure across a broader base of participants. This diversification strategy is analogous to a golfer’s tactical use of different clubs to adeptly handle the varied challenges encountered throughout the course, ensuring that the impact of a single underperforming investment is buffered by the collective performance of the portfolio.

Syndication deals are typically spearheaded by seasoned professionals, bringing a wealth of experience and specialized expertise to the table. These operators manage the intricacies of the investment lifecycle, from acquisition and day-to-day management to the strategic exit, thereby maximizing the investment’s potential. For investors, this translates to benefiting from top-tier management and industry insights without the necessity to delve deep into the real estate domain themselves.

Furthermore, the collective financial prowess of a syndicate can yield significant economies of scale in terms of property acquisition, financing, and operational management. This collaborative financial muscle can secure more favorable deals and terms than possible for individual investors, enhancing the investment’s overall profitability.

In essence, apartment/multifamily syndication encapsulates a strategic investment model that harmonizes passive income opportunities, risk diversification, access to expert management, and economic efficiency. As investors venture into the realm of syndication, aligning their endeavors with their investment objectives and risk profiles, they pave the way for a prosperous and fruitful investment journey in the multifamily real estate landscape.

With over 14 years experience in multifamily real estate investments Fairway Equities is not just a company; it’s a partner invested in your success, dedicated to helping you navigate the course and achieve the financial freedom you seek through investing in multifamily apartment syndications.

Remember that the path to financial freedom is within reach, and with Fairway Equities by your side, you’re well-equipped to navigate it confidently. As you continue reading, know that we’re here to continually educate and guide you on this amazing journey. Whenever you’re ready, we are committed to empowering your financial growth by taking the first step together towards a future where your real estate investments flourish, and your financial goals become a reality.

Market Analysis for Smart Investing

In the sophisticated realm of real estate investment, the art of market analysis stands as a cornerstone, pivotal to unlocking the doors to informed and successful investment decisions. This chapter delves deep into the multifaceted process of market analysis, drawing upon a range of economic indicators, demographic trends, and the intrinsic dynamics of the real estate market itself. The role of a proficient investor is likened to that of an experienced navigator, adept at deciphering the complex map of market conditions to steer their investment ship towards prosperous harbors.

At the heart of market analysis lies the pulse of economic health, serving as a critical barometer for the performance of real estate markets. Key economic indicators such as GDP growth rates, employment statistics, interest rates, and inflation levels offer invaluable insights. A robust and thriving economy, characterized by rising employment and increasing income levels, typically heralds a buoyant real estate market, bolstering purchasing power and amplifying demand for housing. Conversely, escalating interest rates present a headwind to market activity, as the cost of borrowing climbs, potentially curtailing loan affordability and dampening market vibrancy. Navigating the economic landscape demands a keen acuity, enabling investors to discern how these economic variables intricately weave into the fabric of real estate values and rental demand.

The tapestry of demographic trends further enriches the market analysis narrative, providing profound insights into the evolving tapestry of market demand. Shifts in population demographics, such as changes in size, age distribution, migration patterns, and household compositions, wield significant influence over real estate demand dynamics. The entry of millennials into the housing market, for instance, can catalyze a heightened demand for multifamily units in vibrant urban locales, while an aging demographic may pivot the demand towards retirement communities and accessible living spaces. Adapting investment strategies to align with these demographic winds can significantly impact the investment sail, much like a golfer adjusting their swing to the capricious winds on the course.

Delving into the real estate market trends themselves unveils a treasure trove of data pivotal for strategic investment decision-making. Understanding the current interplay between supply and demand, scrutinizing vacancy rates, rental yields, and property price trajectories provides a lens through which market cycles and burgeoning growth areas become discernible.

The strategic mantra of “location, location, location” in real estate investing underscores the paramount importance of granular analysis at the neighborhood or district level. Localized factors such as crime rates, the quality of schools, availability of amenities, and public transport connectivity can significantly sway property values and desirability, painting each neighborhood with its unique palette of characteristics, much like each hole on a golf course presents its distinct challenges and strategies.

Furthermore, the regulatory environment and impending developments emerge as critical elements often relegated to the periphery of market analysis. Zoning laws, property tax regimes, and planned infrastructure projects can dramatically reshape the landscape of a property’s potential, necessitating a forward-looking gaze. In essence, market analysis emerges as the guiding compass for astute real estate investment, weaving together economic, demographic, and market-specific threads, alongside localized insights and regulatory foresight.

Deal Analysis

This chapter delves into the intricate financial mechanics underpinning real estate transactions, offering investors a roadmap for assessing potential ventures and discerning returns. 

The Financial Framework of Real Estate Investments

The financial landscape of real estate investment is composed of various critical elements, including the acquisition cost, financing avenues, operational expenditures, and the anticipated revenue. These components serve as the foundational pillars of any real estate deal, analogous to the diverse clubs in a golfer’s arsenal, each selected for its unique purpose to navigate the course. Investors are tasked with the challenge of harmonizing these financial factors, crafting deal structures that resonate with their investment objectives and risk appetite.

Evaluating Investment Opportunities

The evaluation of prospective real estate investments demands a meticulous examination of pivotal aspects such as the asset’s existing and forecasted financial performance, operational expenses, and its appreciation potential. 

ROI Calculation: The Scorecard of Investment

A pivotal component of deal analysis is the computation of the expected Return on Investment (ROI), a process that entails quantifying the net income a property is poised to generate relative to the aggregate investment injected. The ROI serves as a critical metric, providing a quantifiable measure of the investment’s efficacy and the investor’s prowess.

Cash Flow Analysis: Keeping Score in Real Estate

Understanding cash flow, the net movement of funds in and out of the investment, is a cornerstone of financial analysis. A positive cash flow, indicative of the property yielding more revenue than the incurred expenses, signals a robust investment.

Navigating Risks: Reading the Real Estate Terrain

Beyond profitability, the identification and mitigation of risks inherent in real estate investment are paramount. This entails a thorough analysis of prevailing market trends, the physical state of the property, and macroeconomic factors potentially impacting the investment’s trajectory. 

Mastering Deal Analysis

The mastery of deal analysis emerges as an indispensable skill set for the real estate investor. By equipping investors with the essential tools and insights to dissect and comprehend the financial dimensions of real estate transactions, we can foster informed decision-making and optimize returns. Successful real estate investing, much like a well-executed round of golf, demands strategy, proficiency, and an in-depth understanding of the game’s mechanics. Armed with this comprehensive financial knowledge, investors are better poised to navigate the multifaceted realm of real estate investment, aligning their strategies with their financial aspirations and paving the way towards achieving their investment goals.

Deal analysis is a critical skill that every real estate investor must master. Having the tools and knowledge to dissect and understand the financial aspects of real estate deals, enables investors to make informed decisions and maximize their returns. Like a well-played round of golf, successful real estate investing requires strategy, skill, and a thorough understanding of the game’s mechanics. Armed with this knowledge, investors are better prepared to navigate the complex world of real estate investing and achieve their financial goals.

Risk Management in Real Estate

In the intricate landscape of real estate investment the ability to effectively manage risk stands paramount. This chapter takes a deep dive into the realm of risk management, illuminating the common risks that shadow real estate investments and charting out comprehensive strategies for their mitigation. The narrative underscores the instrumental roles played by insurance, legal structuring, and the strategic allocation of reserve funds in fortifying investments against unforeseen adversities.

Unveiling Common Risks in Real Estate Investment

Embarking on a real estate investment journey is not without its hazards. Investors are often confronted with a spectrum of risks, from the unpredictability of market dynamics and the potential for property value depreciation to the unforeseen exigencies of maintenance and fluctuating occupancy rates. Recognizing and understanding these risks is akin to a golfer meticulously studying the course ahead, identifying potential hazards and planning their play with foresight and precision. This initial step of risk acknowledgment forms the bedrock of effective risk management.

Insurance: The Shield Against Unforeseen Events

In the arsenal of risk management tools, insurance emerges as a formidable shield, offering robust protection against a gamut of unforeseen events. Be it safeguarding against structural damages, shielding from liability claims, or mitigating losses from natural disasters, insurance policies serve as a critical safety net.

Legal Structures: Crafting a Fortified Investment Framework

The strategic selection of legal structures for real estate ventures significantly influences the degree of risk exposure. Opting for legal entities such as Limited Liability Companies (LLCs) provides a layer of insulation, effectively segregating personal assets from the liabilities and debts of the business venture.

Reserve Funds: The Financial Safety Net

The constitution of reserve funds stands as a prudent strategy, acting as a financial bulwark designed to absorb the shocks of unexpected expenses or interruptions in income. These funds ensure that the investment remains resilient through economic ebbs and flows, akin to a golfer equipped with additional balls, prepared to seamlessly continue play despite the loss of a ball. This preparatory measure ensures continuity and stability, safeguarding the investment against potential financial distress.

In summation, the domain of risk management in real estate investment demands a multifaceted and proactive approach. By weaving together a safety net composed of insurance, judicious legal structuring, and the strategic allocation of reserve funds, investors can adeptly navigate the uncertainties of real estate investment.

Common Pitfalls and How to Avoid Them

In the nuanced game of real estate investing, understanding the common pitfalls and learning how to skillfully navigate around them can significantly enhance your success rate. Much like a golfer who must be wary of bunkers and water hazards, an investor must be vigilant to avoid certain missteps that could jeopardize their investment journey. This chapter delves into some of the most prevalent mistakes in real estate investing and offers strategic advice on how to sidestep these potential setbacks.

Overlooking Due Diligence

One of the most critical errors an investor can make is skimping on due diligence. This encompasses a thorough analysis of the property, including its condition, legal standing, and market value, as well as understanding the local market dynamics.  To avoid this pitfall, investors should adopt a meticulous approach, employing professional inspections, and market analyses to inform their decisions.

Misjudging Cash Flow and Expenses

Another common oversight is underestimating the property’s operating expenses and overestimating potential rental income, leading to unrealistic expectations of cash flow. This miscalculation can strain financial resources, similar to a golfer underestimating the distance to the hole and choosing the wrong club. Investors should ensure a buffer in their financial projections to account for variable expenses and potential vacancies, ensuring a realistic and sustainable investment model.

Ignoring Tenant Quality

The quality of tenants can significantly impact the success of a rental investment. Neglecting thorough tenant screening can lead to issues such as delayed rent payments or property damage.  Implementing a rigorous tenant screening process, including credit, income, and reference checks, can help secure reliable tenants and maintain the property’s value and income stream.

Failing to Plan for Maintenance and Repairs

Underestimating the costs and necessity of ongoing maintenance and repairs can lead to property deterioration and value depreciation.  Setting aside a portion of rental income for a maintenance reserve fund can help manage these inevitable expenses without financial strain.

Lack of Diversification

Putting all eggs in one basket, such as investing in a single property type or location, exposes investors to higher risk, much like a golfer using only one club for every shot. Diversification across different property types and markets can spread risk and increase the resilience of the investment portfolio.


While leverage can amplify returns, excessive borrowing can lead to financial instability, especially during market downturns. It’s akin to a golfer playing an overly aggressive shot that risks landing in a hazard. Investors should maintain a healthy debt-to-equity ratio, ensuring they have sufficient equity and cash reserves to weather market fluctuations.

Avoiding these common pitfalls in real estate investing requires a blend of thorough research, prudent financial planning, and strategic foresight. By learning from the mistakes of others and adopting a cautious, informed approach, investors can significantly enhance their chances of success, paving the way for a prosperous and sustainable investment journey.

The Role of Professional Property Management

In the intricate world of real estate investment, enlisting the services of a professional property management firm can significantly elevate the returns on investments. This chapter explores the multifaceted benefits that third-party management services offer, emphasizing how they can augment the value and profitability of real estate assets.

Professional property managers bring to the table a wealth of expertise, enabling them to fine-tune rental rates, ensure sustained high occupancy, and streamline operational expenses effectively. Their adeptness in cultivating tenant relationships and maintaining properties can substantially boost investment returns.

Moreover, the operational efficiency and potential for cost savings under professional management are notable. Leveraging their extensive networks and the advantage of economies of scale, property management firms are adept at negotiating favorable rates for maintenance and repairs. This efficiency in operations directly contributes to the bottom line, enhancing the overall profitability of the investment.

Navigating the legal complexities inherent in landlord-tenant relationships can pose significant challenges. Professional property managers are well-versed in the legal landscape, staying current with regulatory requirements and thereby mitigating the risk of costly legal entanglements.

The aspect of stress reduction and time savings is another significant advantage of engaging professional management services. Entrusting the day-to-day responsibilities of property management to a dedicated team frees investors to concentrate on their primary pursuits or personal interests, unencumbered by the minutiae of property oversight.

Furthermore, property management firms employ advanced technological solutions for marketing properties, screening tenants, and conducting financial reporting, ensuring a sophisticated and professional approach to managing real estate assets. This adoption of cutting-edge technology enhances the efficiency and effectiveness of property management, akin to golfers leveraging the latest equipment to refine their play and gain a competitive edge.

Incorporating professional property management into the strategy for real estate investment offers a pathway to not only amplify returns but also achieve a seamless and rewarding investment experience. It allows investors to tap into the depth of knowledge and expertise that seasoned property managers provide, setting the stage for enhanced profitability, operational efficiency, and an overall more gratifying investment journey.

The Tax Advantages of Real Estate Investing

This chapter delves into the labyrinth of tax incentives tethered to real estate investments, an element often sidelined by novices in the investment arena. The intricate understanding of these tax benefits stands as a linchpin in amplifying the profitability of real estate ventures, essentially bolstering after-tax returns. The discourse is meticulously structured to shed light on the plethora of tax advantages inherent in real estate and to delineate strategies aimed at harnessing these benefits to optimize investment outcomes.

Decoding Real Estate-Specific Tax Benefits

The terrain of real estate investment is fertile with tax benefits, ranging from deductions on mortgage interest and property taxes to operational expenditures, depreciation, and repairs. These fiscal concessions serve to substantially mitigate the taxable income derived from real estate endeavors, thereby augmenting the net income. Each deduction acts as a strategic play, ensuring that every move contributes to the overarching goal of financial efficiency and growth.

Depreciation: The Stealth Tax Shield

Depreciation emerges as a cornerstone tax benefit within real estate investment, permitting investors to amortize the cost of a property across its useful lifespan. This accounting mechanism, although a non-cash expense, offers a veil of protection for a segment of the rental income from taxation, thereby enriching the investment’s cash flow. 

1031 Exchanges: The Strategy of Deferral

The realm of real estate tax strategy heralds the 1031 exchange as a formidable instrument, empowering investors to defer capital gains taxes by channeling proceeds from a property sale into the acquisition of another investment property. This tactical maneuver allows for the expansion and diversification of an investment portfolio while strategically postponing tax liabilities.

Strategizing for Maximized After-Tax Returns

The essence of astute tax planning in real estate investment transcends mere knowledge of deductions and incentives; it involves a strategic orchestration of these elements to optimize tax efficiency. This encompasses a savvy utilization of available deductions, a thorough understanding of the tax implications of diverse financing mechanisms, and the judicious structuring of real estate holdings. Much like a golfer meticulously selecting the right club for each shot, an investor must adeptly navigate the tax landscape to ensure each decision aligns with their financial objectives and maximizes after-tax returns.

By integrating an in-depth understanding of real estate taxation with calculated, strategic application, investors are equipped to traverse the intricate landscape of real estate investment with finesse, ensuring optimal after-tax returns and the realization of their investment aspirations.

Active vs. Passive Real Estate Investing

This chapter unfolds as an essential guide for the busy professional who seeks to navigate the intricate world of real estate investment while juggling demanding career obligations and personal commitments. It intricately dissects the realm of active and passive real estate investing, offering a clear perspective on their distinct characteristics and the unique advantages each holds for the investor with limited time at their disposal.

Delving into Active vs. Passive Real Estate Investing

Active real estate investing demands a hands-on approach, akin to a golfer fully engaged in every aspect of the game, from driving off the tee to putting on the green. This investment style involves direct involvement in property management, encompassing the acquisition, renovation, tenant relations, and ongoing maintenance. It’s an approach suited for those who relish deep involvement in their investment activities and possess the time and skills to manage properties effectively.

In contrast, passive real estate investing is analogous to being a sponsor or spectator of a golf tournament. Investors contribute financially but remain on the sidelines regarding day-to-day management. Fairway Equities specializes in helping investors to tap into real estate markets without the operational burdens associated with active management.

Time Commitment and Operational Ease

For professionals whose schedules are already stretched thin, the time and effort required for active investing can be daunting, much like the commitment needed to refine one’s golfing prowess. Passive investing, on the other hand, offers a less time-intensive path to real estate exposure, allowing investors to reap the benefits of the market without the operational stress, akin to enjoying the golf game from the comfort of the clubhouse.

Strategic Diversification and Risk Mitigation

Passive investing inherently promotes diversification.  By spreading investments across a broad spectrum of properties and sectors, passive investors can mitigate risks tied to individual assets or market fluctuations, ensuring a more stable and balanced investment portfolio.

Leveraging Expertise and Accessing Premier Deals

Passive investments often fall under the stewardship of seasoned professionals, offering investors the advantage of expert management, similar to a golfer relying on a knowledgeable caddie for strategic insights. This professional oversight extends to larger, institutional-grade deals, often beyond the reach of solo investors, providing opportunities for significant market engagement without the complexities of direct management.

Navigating Tax Implications

Both active and passive investment routes come with their unique tax considerations, essential for optimizing after-tax returns.  Understanding the tax nuances of each investment type is crucial for maximizing financial outcomes.

For the busy professional poised at the intersection of ambition and aspiration, passive real estate investing emerges as a compelling avenue. It harmonizes the potential for lucrative returns with the practicalities of a demanding lifestyle, offering a pathway to engage in the real estate market without the encumbrances of active management.

The Investor Mindset

In the intricate world of real estate investment, possessing a robust and strategic mindset is as indispensable as having a solid financial foundation. This chapter ventures deep into the psychological and strategic realms that form the cornerstone of enduring success in real estate.

Cultivating Resilience and Patience

The journey of real estate investment is replete with its share of ebbs and flows, akin to the game of golf where patience and resilience are vital for mastery. Market dynamics can be unpredictable, and setbacks are inevitable, yet the hallmark of a successful investor lies in their unwavering steadiness. Much like a seasoned golfer who remains composed and persevering through challenging rounds, an astute real estate investor embraces the fluctuations of the market with a long-term perspective, understanding that persistence is key to realizing substantial gains.

Emphasizing Strategic Planning and Goal Setting

At the foundation of successful real estate investment lies the art of strategic planning and precise goal setting. This entails a comprehensive delineation of investment goals, timelines, and methodologies. Such a calculated approach ensures that every investment decision is aligned with overarching objectives, optimizing the path towards achieving them.

Embracing Continuous Learning and Adaptability

The realm of real estate is characterized by its dynamic nature, with continual shifts in trends, regulations, and market opportunities. An investor’s ability to thrive in this evolving landscape hinges on their commitment to lifelong learning and adaptability. This mirrors the journey of a golfer who continuously refines their skills and tactics to adapt to diverse courses and playing conditions, ensuring sustained growth and improvement.

Navigating Risk with Acumen

A nuanced understanding of risk and its effective management is pivotal to cultivating a successful investor mindset.  This involves weighing the potential returns against the risks involved, ensuring a balanced approach that favors informed decision-making.

Sharpening Financial Acumen

A profound grasp of financial principles underpins the success of real estate ventures. This encompasses a thorough understanding of cash flow dynamics, financing alternatives, and investment valuation methods. 

Fostering Networking and Relationships

The value of a robust network within the real estate community cannot be overstated, as it opens avenues for new opportunities and insights. 

Building Psychological Fortitude

The emotional landscape of real estate investing can be tumultuous, marked by highs of success and lows of challenges. Cultivating psychological resilience to navigate through fear, greed, and stress is crucial for maintaining a balanced and focused approach, much like a golfer’s need to stay composed and concentrated throughout their game.

Adhering to Ethical Standards

Maintaining the highest ethical standards is paramount in the realm of real estate investing. The principles of integrity, honesty, and transparency should be the guiding lights in all transactions.

In essence, developing the right mindset for real estate investment transcends mere technical knowledge; it demands a holistic approach that blends strategic foresight, continuous learning, risk management, and mental resilience. Just as a golfer dedicates themselves to refining their skills and approach for success on the course, a real estate investor must nurture these attributes to navigate the complexities of the market and achieve lasting success.

Building a Real Estate Portfolio with Multifamily Syndication

Within a diversified investment portfolio, multifamily properties often emerge as the cornerstone to true wealth building.  These properties strike a harmonious balance between risk and reward, offering a semblance of stability and consistent returns.  The inherent resilience of multifamily properties, bolstered by the perennial demand for housing, renders them an attractive proposition for investors seeking sustainable growth, particularly in the face of economic fluctuations.

How Cash Flow Creates Financial Freedom

Consider this: you likely desire $10,000 a month in passive income, translating to a need for approximately $1,500,000 in equity generating an 8% annual return. The equation is straightforward: $1,500,000 X 0.08 = $120,000 annually, or $10,000 monthly. In essence, cash flow stems from equity. To attain your financial goals, you must understand that equity, not just cash flow, fuels your portfolio.

The Conveyor Belt Model

How do you progress from zero to $1,500,000 in real estate equity? Picture a conveyor belt symbolizing your real estate portfolio, spanning five years. Each year, you add one property to the line by investing in a multifamily syndication deal, holding it for five years before selling. By year six, buying and selling properties annually, maintaining a steady flow.

This strategy aims to amass the equity needed for your financial objectives. As properties move through the assembly line, you profit from both appreciation and cash flow. Upon sale, reinvesting the proceeds into the next purchase accelerates equity growth.  The concept here is that at the end of a complete 5-year cycle, your “assembly line” of real estate investments will be fully stocked. By rolling the profits from each sale into the purchase of new properties, you gradually build the equity (targeting $1.5 million) necessary for generating passive income. Each sale serves as a liquidity event, allowing you to reinvest the proceeds.  As equity grows with each transaction, so does your cash flow. With several successful deals under your belt, you’ll reach a point where your equity can reliably generate passive income.

The Path to Success

Executing this model demands diligence. Initial years are transaction-centric, requiring effort to build momentum.  Embrace the reality that building your real estate portfolio necessitates actively pursuing transactions.  The conveyor belt model offers a structured approach to building a real estate portfolio. By consistently acquiring, holding, and selling properties, you cultivate the equity essential for long-term financial freedom.

Real-Life Success Stories

In this chapter, we journey through the inspiring landscapes of real-life success stories in the world of real estate investment. Like a golfer recounting memorable shots, these case studies illuminate the paths taken by various investors to achieve remarkable success, offering valuable insights and lessons learned along the way.

Case Study 1: The Turnaround Triumph

Our first tale begins with a distressed multifamily property nestled in the heart of an up-and-coming neighborhood, much like a hidden gem waiting to be polished. The building, a 20-unit apartment complex, was acquired for $2 million, a price well below its potential market value due to its dilapidated state and low occupancy rate of just 40%. The investor, viewing the property through a lens of potential rather than its present condition, embarked on a strategic renovation plan.

The renovation, with a budget of $500,000, targeted both aesthetic and functional upgrades. It included modernizing kitchens and bathrooms, enhancing the exterior facade, and landscaping the common areas to foster a sense of community. The project also introduced amenities such as a fitness center and a communal lounge, aiming to elevate the living experience.

Upon completion of the renovations, the property underwent a remarkable transformation. The once desolate and uninviting complex became a vibrant community hub, attracting tenants with its modern features and welcoming atmosphere. The occupancy rate soared to 95% within six months of the project’s completion, and the average rent per unit increased from $800 to $1,200, reflecting the enhanced value and desirability of the property.

The financial turnaround was significant. The property’s annual rental income rose from $192,000 (based on the initial 40% occupancy and $800 average rent) to $1,104,000 (with the 95% occupancy at the new $1,200 average rent). This dramatic increase in revenue, coupled with operational efficiencies gained through the renovation, boosted the property’s net operating income (NOI), enhancing its valuation in the real estate market.

Within two years of the initial investment, the property was appraised at $3.5 million, driven by its improved financial performance and the burgeoning appeal of the neighborhood. The investor’s initial vision and strategic investment in the property resulted in a substantial return on investment (ROI), with the property’s value nearly doubling from the purchase price and renovation costs combined.

This case study exemplifies the transformative power of strategic renovation and community engagement in real estate investment. It underscores the importance of vision, perseverance, and the ability to see beyond the present state to unlock the true potential of a property. Like a golfer skillfully navigating out of the rough to make a successful shot, the investor navigated the challenges of a distressed property, turning it into a lucrative investment through calculated risks and strategic improvements.

Case Study 2: The Commercial Comeback

This story revolves around a 50,000-square-foot commercial property situated in a transitioning urban neighborhood. Originally designed for traditional office use, the building faced challenges in attracting long-term tenants, with an occupancy rate lingering around 30%. The investor acquired the property for $5 million, recognizing the untapped potential despite its initial struggles.

In a strategic pivot, the investor re-envisioned the space to cater to the evolving demands of the modern workforce and local community. The ground floor was transformed into a dynamic area hosting pop-up stores for local artisans and startups, creating a retail incubator that drew foot traffic and sparked community interest. The remaining space was converted into a co-working hub, offering flexible office solutions ranging from private offices for small teams to individual hot desks.

The renovation and reconfiguration of the space required an investment of $1 million, focusing on creating versatile, tech-enabled workspaces and vibrant retail areas. This approach not only diversified the income stream but also created a synergistic ecosystem where businesses could thrive, collaborate, and grow.

Post-transformation, the property quickly became a magnet for freelancers, remote workers, startups, and pop-up retailers, pushing the occupancy rate to 90% within a year. The rental rates for the co-working spaces were set at $300 per month for hot desks and $1,500 for private offices, while pop-up store rentals averaged $2,000 per month.

The innovative mixed-use model led to a substantial increase in rental income, generating approximately $1.2 million annually from the co-working spaces and $240,000 from the pop-up stores, totaling $1.44 million in gross rental income. This marked a significant turnaround from the $600,000 annual income generated when the building was underutilized.

Within two years of the pivot, the property’s value appreciated to $8 million, buoyed by its high occupancy, diverse tenant base, and role as a community hub. The investor’s initial $6 million investment (purchase plus renovation) yielded a substantial return, with the property’s value increasing by 33% and the annual rental income more than doubling.

This case study exemplifies the importance of adaptability and innovation in real estate investment. By reimagining the property’s use and embracing a mixed-use model, the investor successfully transformed a struggling commercial building into a thriving community asset, highlighting the potential for significant returns through creative thinking and strategic adaptation.

Case Study 3: The Syndication Success

In this case, we delve into a syndication deal focused on a 200-unit apartment complex situated in a promising yet underdeveloped area. The complex, though structurally sound, had fallen into disrepair, with outdated interiors and neglected common areas leading to a low occupancy rate of just 60%. The purchase price for the property was set at $15 million, reflecting its potential despite the immediate need for improvements.

The lead investor, recognizing the opportunity, formed a syndicate with ten other investors, pooling a total of $5 million for extensive renovations. This capital injection was allocated towards modernizing apartment units, upgrading landscaping, enhancing security features, and adding amenities such as a fitness center and a community clubhouse.

Post-renovation, the apartment complex transformed into one of the most sought-after residential options in the area. The upgrades led to an increase in rental rates from an average of $800 to $1,200 per unit. Consequently, the occupancy rate surged to 95% within a year of completing the improvements, significantly boosting the property’s income.

The financial turnaround was remarkable. Prior to the renovation, the complex was generating $1.92 million in annual rental income (based on 60% occupancy and $800 average rent). After the improvements and the subsequent increase in both rental rates and occupancy, the annual rental income skyrocketed to $2.28 million (calculated with 95% occupancy at the new $1,200 average rent).

This increase in income, coupled with the enhanced aesthetic and functional appeal of the property, elevated its market valuation. Within two years of the syndication deal, the apartment complex was appraised at $25 million, marking a substantial appreciation from its initial purchase price.

The syndicate’s strategic investment in the property not only rejuvenated the complex but also delivered impressive returns. The total investment of $20 million (purchase plus renovation costs) yielded a property valuation of $25 million, representing a 25% increase in value. For the investors, this translated into a significant return on equity, especially considering the improved cash flow from the higher occupancy and rental rates.

This case study underscores the power of syndication in real estate investment, where the collective effort and capital of a group can lead to transformative results. By pooling resources and expertise, the investors were able to capitalize on an opportunity that might have been too daunting or sizable for an individual investor, demonstrating the potential for lucrative returns through collaborative investment strategies.

Case Study 4: The Passive Income Portfolio

In this case, we explore the methodical journey of an investor who meticulously crafted a portfolio of multifamily properties by investing with an apartment syndicator focused on the principles of long-term passive income generation. The investor concentrated on acquiring stable, cash-flowing assets, demonstrating the virtues of patience and a keen focus on real estate fundamentals.

Starting with an initial investment capital of $1 million, the investor strategically invested in several apartment buildings each selected for their strong rental demand, potential for appreciation, and lower risk profiles. The initial portfolio comprised four properties, each with an investment of $250,000.

As the portfolio began to yield returns, with an average preferred return of 8%, the investor leveraged the generated income of $80,000 in the first year to reinvest and gradually expand the portfolio. This disciplined reinvestment strategy facilitated the growth of the portfolio, adding more properties over time and diversifying into different property types and geographic areas to mitigate risk and capitalize on varying market dynamics.

By passively investing in apartment syndications alongside a sponsor with its eyes on operational efficiency, the investor ensured high occupancy rates, averaging 95% across the portfolio, which translated into a consistent and reliable income stream. Having a seasoned real estate professional and their team manage not only the day to day operations but the entire business plan for the investment allowed the investor to focus on his own career allowing for strategic expansion without being bogged down by the countless management tasks involved in a successful real estate investment. 

Over a decade, this strategic approach bore fruit. The value of the portfolio appreciated to $5 million, buoyed by careful property selection, strategic reinvestments, and the overall upward trajectory of the real estate market. The annual rental income from the portfolio also saw substantial growth, reaching $400,000.

The investor’s journey underscores the importance of a conservative approach to real estate investment, prioritizing stable, long-term gains over the allure of high-risk opportunities. By focusing on properties with predictable cash flows and low vacancy rates, the investor minimized exposure to market volatility, ensuring stable passive income through economic cycles.

This case study exemplifies the power of a disciplined, long-term investment strategy in real estate. It highlights how a focus on the fundamentals—careful property selection, reinvestment of income, risk diversification, and operational efficiency—can lead to significant wealth accumulation and financial independence. It’s a testament to the idea that in real estate investment, much like in golf, a steady, focused approach can navigate the challenges and uncertainties of the market to achieve enduring success.

Lessons Learned

Each story brings to light key lessons:

Vision and Creativity: Seeing potential where others see challenges can uncover hidden gems.

Adaptability: Being willing to pivot strategies when faced with obstacles is crucial.

Collaboration: Pooling resources and knowledge can lead to greater success than going it alone.

Patience: Focusing on long-term gains rather than short-term wins can build sustainable wealth.

Diligence: Thorough research and understanding of the market are indispensable.

These real-life success stories in real estate investment serve as both inspiration and education. They highlight the diverse strategies investors can employ to navigate the market, much like the varied shots a golfer uses to navigate a course. From these narratives emerge timeless lessons of innovation, resilience, and strategic foresight—guiding lights for anyone looking to carve their path to real estate success.

Real estate investment, much like a carefully strategized game of golf, presents numerous opportunities for both reward and risk.  As we encapsulate the essence of this guide, the role of Fairway Equities emerges more prominently as a beacon of guidance and partnership. In a terrain marked by potential pitfalls, having Fairway Equities as your ally is akin to having a seasoned caddie by your side, one who not only understands the course with all its intricacies but also shares your ambition for victory.

The encouragement to take the next steps with Fairway Equities is an invitation to embark on a journey of growth, learning, and achievement. It’s an acknowledgment that while the road to financial freedom through real estate is laden with challenges, the presence of a trusted partner can transform these challenges into milestones of success. Fairway Equities stands ready to provide the expertise, the strategy, and the support necessary to navigate the complexities of real estate investment, ensuring that each decision is informed, each risk is calculated, and each opportunity is seized with precision.

This guide, from the foundational concepts to the nuanced strategies and the candid discussion of potential pitfalls, aims to equip you with a comprehensive understanding of real estate investment. It seeks to instill not just knowledge but confidence—a confidence that stems from having a clear roadmap and a reliable partner in Fairway Equities.

In conclusion, the journey through real estate investment is one of discovery, learning, and empowerment. It’s a journey that demands resilience, adaptability, and the wisdom to recognize the value of partnership. With Fairway Equities, you gain more than an investment firm; you gain a partner whose commitment to your success is unwavering.

As you stand on the brink of this exciting venture, remember that the path to financial freedom is both challenging and rewarding. With the insights from this guide and the partnership of Fairway Equities, you are well-equipped to navigate this journey, turning potential pitfalls into stepping stones towards achieving your financial goals and realizing your dreams of financial independence.

Why Choose Fairway Equities

In the competitive field of real estate investment, choosing the right partner is as crucial as selecting the right club for a pivotal shot in golf. Fairway Equities stands out as a distinguished partner, renowned for its expertise, strategic approach, and commendable track record. This chapter introduces Fairway Equities, shedding light on the qualities that make it an exemplary choice for investors seeking to navigate the real estate market successfully.

It’s Personal: We stand where you stand, with a driver in hand, eyeing the undulating course of real estate investment. My journey through the highs and lows, the eagles and the bogeys, has not only honed my skills but fueled a passion to guide others. Fairway Equities isn’t just a firm; it’s my story, replete with lessons learned and victories earned.

Expertise at Your Service: Navigating the real estate market demands more than just a keen eye; it requires an intimate understanding of the terrain, the hazards, and the opportunities that lie in each investment. With years spent mastering the nuances of real estate, from sourcing prime deals to networking and managing the notorious 3Ts (tenants, toilets, and trash), we bring a wealth of experience to your game, ensuring you’re always playing from the best lie.

Shared Passion for Multifamily Investments: My enthusiasm for multifamily properties is not just about the numbers; it’s about the game-changing potential they hold. I’ve witnessed firsthand the transformative power of smart, strategic multifamily investments in achieving financial freedom. My goal is to share this playbook with you, so together, we can drive towards prosperity and a better quality of life, one investment at a time.

Diversification as a Strategy: In the dynamic game of wealth building, diversification is not just a tactic; it’s a necessity.  We understand the critical need for entrepreneurs and investors to diversify their income streams, particularly through real estate. With Fairway Equities, we employ a ‘conveyor belt’ approach to wealth creation, methodically moving from one opportunity to the next, ensuring a steady flow of income and growth.

In the strategic game of real estate investment, the “How?” is just as crucial as the “Why?”. At Fairway Equities, our approach to navigating the course of investment is both methodical and dynamic, akin to a golfer’s calculated yet adaptable strategy for each hole. Here’s how we drive towards success:

Value-Add Approach: We focus on properties with untapped potential, investing in enhancements and optimizations that significantly boost their value. This could involve physical improvements, operational efficiencies, or repositioning in the market. 

Multifamily Asset Focus: We specialize in multifamily properties. This focus allows us to deepen our expertise, understanding the unique opportunities and challenges these assets present. Multifamily properties offer the dual advantage of stable rental income and scalability, making them a cornerstone of our investment strategy.

Targeting High Growth Markets and B/C Asset Classes: Our approach is to target markets and properties that promise growth and resilience.  We concentrate on B and C asset classes in regions showing strong economic and demographic growth. These properties often provide the optimal balance of risk and reward, offering opportunities for value-add improvements and robust rental demand.

Collaboration with Trusted Operators: We partner only with operators who have proven their reliability and expertise.  These partnerships are built on trust, due diligence, and a shared commitment to excellence, ensuring that every investment is managed with the utmost care and professionalism.

Skin in the Game: Our commitment to our investments is absolute as we invest our own capital alongside our partners. This ensures that our interests are fully aligned with those of our investors, driving us to achieve the best possible outcomes in every venture.

At Fairway Equities, our “How?” is defined by a blend of strategic focus, specialized expertise, and an unwavering commitment to our investments and partners. We navigate the real estate investment landscape with precision, foresight, and a shared ambition for success, ensuring that we, along with our investors, are always in a position to celebrate at the 19th hole.

Partnering with Fairway Equities for Success

Partnering with Fairway Equities can simplify the investment process, reduce complexities, and significantly enhance investment returns.

Fairway Equities offers a comprehensive suite of services, from property acquisition and asset management to financial structuring and exit planning. This end-to-end approach ensures that every aspect of the investment process is handled with precision and professionalism, allowing investors to benefit from a streamlined and stress-free experience.

One of the key advantages of partnering with Fairway Equities is the access it provides to exclusive investment opportunities. Through its extensive network and industry relationships, Fairway Equities is able to identify and secure high-potential investments that might otherwise be inaccessible to individual investors.

Moreover, Fairway Equities employs a collaborative approach, working closely with its partners to understand their investment goals, risk tolerance, and financial objectives. This personalized strategy ensures that investment decisions are aligned with the investors’ aspirations.

The partnership also offers the benefit of shared risk and diversified portfolios. By pooling resources with Fairway Equities and other investors, individuals can participate in larger, potentially more lucrative projects while spreading their investment risk across multiple assets.

As we conclude this guide and contemplate the vast landscape of real estate investment, it’s clear that the journey to financial freedom is both an exciting and intricate endeavor. With the insights and strategies outlined in these pages, you are now standing on the precipice of opportunity, equipped with the knowledge and understanding to embark on this rewarding journey.

Fairway Equities, with its collaborative approach and commitment to aligning investment decisions with your unique goals and aspirations, stands ready to be your guide and partner. We are here to navigate you through the complexities of real estate investment, ensuring that each step you take is informed and strategic.

Taking the Next Step

If you’re ready to take the next step towards building your real estate investment portfolio and achieving financial independence, Fairway Equities is here to help. Getting started is simple:

Contact Us: Reach out to our team to schedule a consultation. You can call us at (615) 703-8555, email us at, or visit our website at

Personalized Consultation: During our initial consultation, we’ll discuss your investment goals, risk tolerance, and financial objectives. This is our opportunity to understand what you’re looking for in your real estate investment journey.

Customized Investment Plan: Based on our consultation, we’ll craft a personalized investment plan tailored to your specific needs and aspirations, ensuring that we’re aligned with your vision for financial success.

Partnership and Growth: With the plan in place, we’ll embark on this journey together, with Fairway Equities providing continuous support, expertise, and insights every step of the way.

With Fairway Equities as your caddie, you’re poised on the first tee, gazing down the lush fairway of opportunity that stretches towards the horizon of financial independence. Together, we’ll navigate each hole, strategize every shot, and celebrate the victories that await us on this grand course. Let’s tee off on this journey to financial freedom, with Fairway Equities guiding every swing.